glitzer und glamour

rather good phrase necessary just the..




Altersdurchschnitt em 2019

altersdurchschnitt em 2019

8. Nov. TÜV Report Porsche siegt in allen Altersklassen: Welche . Da der Gewinner in dieser Altersklasse die niedrigste EM-Quote aller. 5. Juli Juni In Russland prägen viele ältere Spieler das Turnier. Ein Rekord könnte noch | Min. | Verfügbar bis | Das Erste. Sept. Der Altersdurchschnitt in der Fußball Bundesliga wird immer niedriger SV Werder Bremen, DFL, Altersdurchschnitt Fußball Bundesliga. Das entspricht einem Auftragsvolumen von über 1,3 Mio. Hinsichtlich des Marktangebots und der Erfüllung qualitativer Kundenerwartungen besteht in diesem Segment erheblicher Nachholbedarf. Gerade für Endverbraucher entsteht mit dem Angebot der Holzenergie eine langfristige Option, mit Pelletheizungen bezahlbaren Wohnraum zu schaffen. Die Kommunikation über die optische und akustische Darstellung auf Veranstaltungen jeder Art ist das Präsentations-Fundament jedes erfolgreichen Unternehmens. In Deutschland unterliegt das Crowdfunding der staatlichen Kontrolle. Alle müssen sich nun sportlich qualifizieren und können natürlicherweise auch ausscheiden. Der Wettbewerb am Kreditmarkt ist durch die Wirkungen des Kreditwesengesetzes als eines der letzten Monopolgesetze in Deutschland und durch den "Informationsklünkel" der Banken untereinander zum Nachteil der finanzierungsuchenden Unternehmen stark eingeschränkt. Ist die Einlage erbracht, besteht keinerlei Haftung mehr und ebenso ist eine Nachschussverpflichtung ausgeschlossen. Die abgeschriebene Forderung wird in der Bilanz des Gläubiger-Unternehmens als Aktivposten gelöscht und steuerlich als Verlust abgeschrieben. Already today the BHKW's are a more important warmth stream supplier from renewable energy sources.

Great experience and lovely house: Clean, modern and cozy. Very close to beautiful beaches. Perfect communication with owners.

It was a wonderful stay! Das Haus lag am Rand eines kleinen Dorfes und wir verbrachten mehrere Nachmittage auf der Sonnenterrasse. Mit unserem Auto waren wir in kurzer Zeit in den nahegelegenen Orten und den tollen Buchten.

Die Kommunikation war gut. The most wonderful apartment, with views looking down to zaviel and the hills that surround it.

It was the perfect place from which to explore, and Ernesto was a wonderful host- thankyou so much for our stay! Die Unterkunft war sehr angenehm und im Etwa so wie beschrieben.

Die Unterkunft liegt sehr ruhig. Es war sehr sauber und vor allem funktionierte die Dusche einwandfrei. Ernesto und seine Tochter sind sehr gastfreundlich und wenn wir uns trafen, wurde immer gefragt, ob alles ok ist.

Einen Laden gibt es in Hortas nicht mehr, es ist ratsam, vorher in Raposeira die ersten Dinge einzukaufen. Das Restaurant von Ernesto ist auch sehr zu empfehlen.

Insgesamt ein toller Aufenthalt und eine empfehlenswerte Unterkunft. Very nice house in a super quite place.

Very well located near sagres , Vila do bispo and a lot of beaches. The house is new, very comfortable bed I will go back for sure: The apartment was very clean and equipped with everything we needed, and the surrounding area was beautiful.

We had some issues checking in could not reach hosts by phone , and had to wait for almost two hours, but for the remainder of our stay all communication was easy and prompt.

Sie liegt in einem kleinem ruhigen Ort, was uns sehr gut gefallen hat. Die Kommunikation mit Neuza Tochter von Ernesto war sehr gut und unkompliziert.

I cannot begin to describe how happy we were with our experience. From the very beginning things were very easy and straight forward.

Because the property beautiful property! Once we entered, we immediately felt comfortable and at home. It was very clean, charming, and inviting!

We loved it immediately and continued to love it throughout our stay. The location is perfect if you would like to explore the western part of the Algarve in my opinion the best part.

We will absolutely return!!! We enjoyed the place very much. The house was charming, practical and clean. Ernesto was a great host.

The village is nice and quiet during winter at least. Ronja and Martin who run the hostel are hardworking and honest people we had a pleasure to meet and talk to during our 3 night stay.

Hostel is clean, very uniquely decorated, with nice personal touches inside and in the garden, beds are comfortable, water is hot and good pressure.

The internet connection is great, one of the best connections I had while traveling there. Although the place is very popular among surfers and we are not, we had plenty of things to do and explore the area during the day.

And at night we had fun socializing. Also Martin went above and beyond to accommodate us so we are really grateful for that as well. Definitely will return to the Hostel on the Hill if we ever in the area.

Highly recommend it to anyone who is traveling. Thank you Ronja and Martin! Thank you for everything!!! The people there were very friendly and gave us great hints about activieties and so on.

Furnas Beach was amazing!! We really suggest everybody to spend a night in this beautiful place. That place is so beautiful!

We really enjoyed our stay in that cute little charming hostel! Its in a really calm area with a beautiful view and really lovley hosts.

The breakfast was really yummy and the beaches are very close to reach with the car. I can definitely recommend that place for a beautiful stay in Portugal!

You will have an amazing time ;. Best accomodation we found in Portugal, amazing location in the hills, perfect combination of a quiet and calm surrounding in nature and a friendly and cozy environment to socialise and confront with the other guests about each one experience.

Martin and Roja have been perfect hosts, taking care of us everyday preparing breakfast and sometimes tapas in the evening, always available to suggest the best hiking route or hidden beaches in the area.

We took private twin room with private terace, great value for money, near by best beaches for surfing. Durch das selbstgekochte Dinner der Gastgeberin haben wir dort lustige Abende in netter Gesellschaft verbracht!

We were staying in the double room but the dorm rooms also look amazing with lots of space. Comfy beds and the area is very nice so quiet and beautiful when you wake up!

We received some great tips for the surroundings. Would definitely recommend staying here! Hilfsbereite , freundliche Vermieter! Ideal para uns dias de descanso!

What an amazing house, with a breathtaking view! The house is located in Hortas do Tabual, a beautiful little village near Zavial Beach.

We had such a wonderful time. Thank you very much, Carlos! The views are beautiful, and nature is just steps away with birds, chickens, cats and dogs, all welcoming you to the little neighborhood.

Speaking of neighbors, they are friendly too and the vibe definitely lends itself to decompressing from a stressful life! Carlos and his local team are beyond helpful and extremely friendly.

The listing was appropriate. The village is rather small and quiet. Everything in this region closes early. It is very peaceful. The house was outstanding.

There are hills around. It is a few kms away from the nearest town. Carlos is a great host. He gave us great directions and also recommended places to eat at.

He is very responsive. We had a wonderful time in Hortas do Tabual. The Casa do Vale was beautiful in all aspects. You have a breathtaking view from all rooms.

You can see a peaceful valley and the ocean at the horizone. Many cats and dogs are joining you. Also there are lovely houses, flowers, trees and friendly people.

It feels a little bit like paradies. In the house you can find all that you need almost more than you need Carlos is an uncomplicated and super friendly host.

When we had questions he answered them immediately. We would have loved it to stay longer and we hope we can come back as fast as possible!

It is usually difficult to summarize a long stay in a short review, but there it goes Awesome location, awesome house, awesome host!

But more importantly, Carlos went out of his way to make this stay remarkable. He always responds quickly, is a very approachable and great guy and fixes every occasional!

I think he really embodies the Airbnb spirit! This place is a must if you are looking for something laidback.

Close to many beaches. There are direct access to hiking paths and a cool garden. But the best is the friendly atmosphere. You will for sure enjoy mingling with nice hosts and guests.

Das Hostel ist gepflegt und mir allem ausgestattet was man braucht. Great place, warm welcoming, everything is easy and cheap.

Nice beach in 5 minutes driving. Place quiet and beautiful. Ronja and Martijn make it really easy to arrive in the Holidayfeeling and made us feel at home straight away!

Not only was the home made dinner super delicious but it was also a great opportunity to socialise with the other guests. They helped us booking our trip and we could rent some surf gear for a low price to use on the local awesome beaches.

We also enjoyed their freshly prepared breakfast. All in all we had a great time at this easy and relaxed place. Thank you for everything and see you next time!

Martin tog godt i mod os, stedet havde de faciliteter vi sku bruge incl. Although Ronja hosts quite a few people it was really quiet, tidy and we immediately felt home in the Hostel on the Hill.

The communication could not have been better. Two easy-going hosts making almost everything possible we went mainly for surfing, but you can also do good hikes, SUP tours, mountain biking or simply beach vacation close by.

Martijn shared his knowledge and passion about surfing and hidden spots along the cost with us which was a great pleasure! Breakfast options are good, too.

This hostel offers everything you could wish for: It is clean, there are enough bathrooms, the kitchen is well eqipped and the living room is cosy!

The hospitality of Ronja and Martijn is awesome. They were always interested in our well-beeing and helped a lot by sharing their local knowledge!

We are definetly coming back to this awesome hostel! They are very welcoming and friendly, and the house is cosy and charming, you feel like home.

Thank you so much Ronja and Maarten. It was really great to stay in your Hostel on the Hill. Great place, wonderful atmosphere Quiet and relaxing place, small and cozy, with all the indispensable things.

The owners are very kind and available for everything. Es gibt viele Tipps, was man in der Gegend so machen kann, z. Auf jeden Fall zu empfehlen!

What a beautiful place! We had everything we needed, everything was clean and just perfect. The host was very helpful with everything we needed and we loved our stay there.

A beautiful peaceful spot. Had a lovely stay. We stayed 3 days and had a blast. Ronja and Martin are very welcoming and full of great advice.

The hostel is a place where you will feel at home and meet great people. Its charming, cozy, clean We can just advise you to go there! Beautiful house, lovely hosts, stunning location and a warm, welcoming atmosphere.

Only thing I could fault is the weather ; Thanks for a relaxing stay! We had a very pleasant stay at this Hostel.

It is a bit further away from Everything but therefore a Perfect place to Refill your batteries. Nice and cosy vibe, it felt more like being at someones home than a hostel.

My two friends and I stayed at this hostel for two nights, and really enjoyed it! They know the area well and are more than willing to help you decide what to visit, they also have some booklets and folders with things to do.

The location was good for us, as we had a car. Ronja and Martin know what they are doing! Plus, the surroundings are just amazing, all the chill and all the lush and all the mediterranean warmth you need My stay with Ronja and Martin was amazing!

If you have the chance to stay here, DO IT! Certaines ont des restaurants. Il y a une cuisine et un salon de lecture. Les habitants sont amicaux.

Vous ne le regretterez pas. Magical place and awesome guest. Recommended for anyone who wants to meet new people and feel at home. Posto molto pulito e accogliente!

Proprietari gentili e disponibili! Grazie ai loro consigli ho vosto spiagge bellissime non segnate sulle guide turistiche! The hostel feel like coming HOME and living with a big family.

The owners are amazing friendly people, always around to help you in case you need something Statt zwei Tagen, sind wir am Ende dann doch acht Tage geblieben.

Quiet and peaceful environment. Wonderful place to stay if you want a little time outside towns. Ernesto and his daughter were very very nice!

Everything was supercool and i can recommend it to everyone! Clean, very near to the gorgeous beaches. Lovely, quite and well equipped apartment about 2 km away from to fantastic beaches.

Very relaxed, good and fast communication with the owners. Nice spacious house with many rooms in retro style. Kitchen with everything you need for prepare local food: Ernesto has the most wonderful house and it was a pleasure staying there with my friends.

Hosts took care of every tiny detail in order to make our stay more enjoyable. House is located relatively close to the beautiful beach nicest one in the area.

Overall great experience, super host, would be glad to come once again. Die Unterkunft liegt zwar etwas abgelegen, aber mit dem Auto ist alles schnell zu erreichen.

Hemos pasado una semana impresionante en familia. El trato por parte de Andrea ha sido genial, siempre atenta. La maison est extraordinaire dans un cadre idyllique.

Ronja and Martin are very nice and uncomplicated. I enjoyed the time very much. The location is beautiful, quite near to the sea and very nice beaches.

I recommend to join the dinner, Ronja offers sometimes. The Hostel on the Hill is a good place for enjoying portuguese nature and of cause for going surfing.

It was a short- but great time for me there. Martin gave us a great welcome and really good tips! The hostel was really cool and with all the services you might need.

Thanks for the kindness, take care! We had a short but great stay at the hostel. The host was very helpful and gave us perfect recommendations for our trip in Portugal.

Other guests were nice as well. The house was definately one of the reasons for our great time in portugal - all summed up a big recommendation.

Located in the middle of a very small and cute village, the accomodation has everything you need. The house was clean, nicely decorated and is very well equipped.

Actually the highlight in our opinion is the large terrace for a sunny breakfast or sunset dinner. The hosts, Ernesto and his daughter were very friendly and handled our check-in and check-out very uncomplicated.

Overall we had an amazing time staying in a beautiful residence. We would come there anytime again! Great place in a fantastic location!

The house has everything you might need, very comfortable and kitchen fully equipped. The terrace area is fantastic for a relaxing end of afternoon as the sun is setting.

The surroundings are very peaceful and beautiful. Had a great time at the hostel. Evening meal on the Friday was lovely and a great way to meet other people.

What a wonderful place. Close to the South coast beaches, and no distance from Sagres and the west coast surf beaches.

There are nearby local shops and Lidl supermarket 2km or so away. We all had a wonderful holiday. The house feels new and well cared for.

It was all beautifully clean, which must be a huge job as it is big house. You will be so lucky to have such a wonderful property for your holiday.

It is so good that I hope we will be back! Descubra casas inteiras e quartos particulares perfeitos para qualquer viagem. Lugares para ficar em Hortas do Tabual, Figueira.

Casa Azul Zavial is a traditional cottage placed on a small countryside village Hortas do Tabual far away from the mass tourism.

On the heart of Costa Vicentina Natural Reserve is ideal for rest and relax in direct contact with nature. Character cottage restaured in Very confortable and welcoming.

The cottage interior has a casual ambiance with the living room, and the mezzanine floor. Just 1 mile from Zavial Beach.

Away from the crowds and development of the central Algarve coast, this village cottage is located within the Costa Vicentina nature reserve, with farmland, countryside, quiet lanes and stunning beaches.

Close to the SW tip of Portugal at Sagres, it faces south and has the beaches of Zavial and Ingrina a couple of km away.

White sands, clear waters, protected bays and good waves: Within a short drive are the west coast beaches, starting at Tonel and Castelejo.

Scuba-diving, snorkelling, sailing, fishing and kayaking can all be arranged and on land there are numerous golf courses and nice places for walking, mountain-biking and cycling.

Restored in , the house is down-to-earth and decorated in traditional blue and white, with terracotta and wooden furnishings.

Outdoors is a patio and al-fresco dining area. Cosy Cottage West coast Algarve. Nice two bedroom cottage with private patio, surrounded only by nature.

Well equipped including fast WIFI internet connection. Fits 4 persons, 2 couples or 1 couple with two kids for example. The view from the house is simply beautiful, just green and really close to Zavial beach!

Hortas do Tabual is a friendly place to spend your holidays. Mostly rural workers live in this small village. Away from the crowded Algarve, this particular spot at the Southwest Natural Park combines countryside with great white sand beaches.

The house is in the far east of the village with just the green valley as your big neighbour. Surf, snorkeling, fishing or sailing are some of the activities that you can easily find in this area.

From the turbulent waters and great landscapes of the west coast, to the calm and mild water beaches in the south, the main ingredient is the unique experience with untouched nature of the Southwest.

Thanks Carlos Marco T Nice Cottage with Patio - Zavial. Our holiday home is situated in the typical village Hortas do Tabual, which is still an authentic portuguese place.

The house is situated in a calm village with about 50 inhabitants called Hortas do Tabual. There are only 5 minutes between your door and the beach towel You can hear the ocean flowing!

The house has approx. The bedroom windows look southward onto the patio and are not visible from outside the property.

There is a main bedroom with a full-size bed [1,40 m] and another one with a bunk bed and an additional pull-out bed. Since space is pretty tight with more than 4 people adults , we offer the house for four individuals maximum.

Besides a toilet and a washbasin, the small inside bathroom hosts a bidet and a shower. The cooker and the water are heated with gas. The fridge has a spacious freezing compartment!

We provide nice warm blankets for the cooler nights. In addition, the fireplace is equipped with a heating cassette that holds the heat.

We provide enough wood briquettes for your arrival. Replenishment will be easy for you, for example at Lidl briquettes or other supermarkets and petrol stations.

Hortas do Tabual lies south of Raposeira, close to the national highway N, 8 km from Sagres and about 20 minutes drive to Lagos 21 km.

The village has a free parking at the its church, which is close to the house. Travelling on the motorway is nice and calm!

Turn left, then keep right. Give us a call when you are in Lagos, please! Alternatively, we can also agree on a time to meet beforehand.

Conveniently, the kiosk is just opposite the house! Besides the Spar shop in Raposeira, there are more shopping opportunities in Vila do Bispo only 5 minutes, 4 km: The perfect beach mix As this protected landscape belongs to the nature reserve "Southwest Alentejo and Costa Vicentina" it is really worth discovering nature and outdoor leisure.

Typical Algarve house near Zavial. Cozy one bedroom cottage independent top floor, surrounded only by nature. Fits persons, 1 couple and 1 single.

We also have a sofa bed that can fit one more person in the living room. From the turbulent waters and great landscapes of the west coast, to the calm and hot watered beaches in the south the main ingredient is the unique experience with untouched nature of the Southwest.

Very close to one of the beautiful beaches at the Algarve Bernd Broghammer T Cozy two bedroom cottage surrounded only by nature. Located inside the valley, the house has a quiet, peaceful environment, a mix of countryside and beach with a lovely terrace where you can have a meal or just enjoy the view to the valley and sea.

Cottage with Terrace near Zavial. Situa-se numa aldeia tradicional algarvia, perto das maravilhosas praias do Zavial e Ingrina. A aldeia fica a 2 km das praias populares do Zavial e Ingrina.

Casa Tabu, T1 perto das praias do Zavial e Ingrina. If you are looking for tranquility, pure relaxation, nature and an abundance of sun and fresh air, this studio apartment located in the picturesque and authentic village, is the perfect place for your holiday!

Its position in the south western part of the Vicentina Nature Park, makes this an ideal starting point for discovering this charming area.

Meet the farmers, shepherds and fishermen going about their daily lives, visit the pristine beaches of the west coast, surf, bike hike or play golf!

With traditional potuguese and moorish influences built into its design, this attractive studio comes with all the comforts suitable for a small family or couple.

You will apreciate this accommodation because of its spacious terrace, beautiful views, colors and artistic and romantic coziness. A private wooden terrace with stunning panoramic views of the green hills and Zavial beach 1km in the south, complete with long chairs and sunshade.

The studio is located at the border of the village, with the green valley as your big neighbour. Fica a menos de 2kms da praia do Zavial e 3 kms da praia da Ingrina.

Cute Old Cottage is a traditional cottage placed on a small countryside village Hortas do Tabual far away from the mass tourism. The cottage interior has a casual ambiance keeping all the characteristics of the old country side house.

Restored in , the house is down-to-earth and decorated in traditional terracota and white, with terracotta and wooden furnishings.

Outdoors is a nice patio for sunbathing and al-fresco dining area. The place to stay if you want to spend some time in southern Portugal Frank T Ricardo the owner was super nice and helpful - all together we had a wonderful stay Martin T Cute Old Cottage West coast Algarve.

If you are looking for tranquility, pure relaxation, nature and somewhere close to the sea, than this cozy house located in an authentic village is the perfect place for your holidays.

Meet the farmers, shepherds and fishermen. Life is sweet here! This house was built with love by the owner who is very perfectionist, creative and he gives a lot of importance to good quality materials.

The floor heating makes the house also enjoyable during winter. The house has a roof terrace with lounge set and sea views and another terrace next to the swimming pool where guests can enjoy the sun, protected from the wind and even enjoy a meal outside.

Cozy, modern design, this beautiful home is a short walk to the stunning beaches of Zavial and Ingrina. Its a place you never wish to leave! There are many marked tracks popular with walkers and mountain bikers wanting to explore the countryside and coastal paths.

Children can play safely in the village. Man thanks, Sebastian Sebastian T Very enjoyable and comfortable stay Timothy T Brandnew cozy village house with swimming pool.

Casa do Menir, liegt in ein Naturschutzgebiet auf ca 2. Minimum 4Tage Im Winter ab 1 Pers. Grill laden zum Grillabend bei Sonnenuntergang.

In Garten ist auch ein kleiner Pavillon, mit Meeresblick und eine Couch wo mann eine Siesta nehmen kann. Der Garten hat div. Das Meer ist ca.

Im Winter von, Extras nur der Gas, u. Holz zum heitzen--Wasser,Strom, Endereinigung Inclusiv. We had a great time in Benjamins beautifull house.

Obrigada por todo Henry T This is an automated posting. Casa do Menhir --Raposeira u. Local privilegiado envolvido pela natureza, onde reinam a tranquilidade e sossego.

En general, todo correcto Pablo T Yellow Cottage is located on a small countryside village Hortas do Tabual far away from the mass tourism. Character cottage rebuild in The cottage interior has a casual ambiance with the open space living room, 2 floor.

Yellow Cottage near Zavial beach. Die Kommunikation mit Ernesto ist problemlos da er der Nachbar ist.

Beach House - Casa C. Located inside the valley, the house has a quiet, peaceful environment, a mix of countryside and beach with a lovely space outside where you can have a meal or just enjoy the view to the valley and sea.

Fits 4 to 5 persons. F7 hand on doorhandle of open door photo F8 group of young people clinking beer bottles photo F F10 person with vacuum and feather duster clipart F F12 worker building a wall clipart F F14 man kneeling with present in front of women photo F Instructions Following are the instructions for the production task task one in the English original and the Russian translation presented to the participants: In the following you will hear sentences, where the last word is missing.

You have to finish the sentence by speaking out loud this missing word. The missing word is shown in the picture, you will see on the screen.

The results show a general nachweisbar, siehe [6]. Aorist-Morphem im Konsequenzteil des Satzes zu finden, nicht jedoch im Bedingungsteil, wie in Beispiel 2 zu sehen.

Aspektform, die in vgl. Dies ist in Beispiel 3 zu sehen. Hierbei markiert der 3 a. Als Stimuli dienen beinhalten.

Abschnitt 3 befasst sich mit den und negativer Variante, siehe 5. Versionen des Experiments verteilt.

Der Altersdurchschnitt lag bei 36 Jahren. Dies veranschaulicht eine Sprachgebrauch des Urum zu bewerten. Russisch sowohl in auditiver als auch visueller Form gezeigt, Betrachtet man die einzelnen Sprechergenerationen — alt siehe 4.

Altersgruppen deutlich zu sehen. После того, как вы услышите предложение, нажмите на выбранную вами цифру и polarity age group n mean score SE value ждите следующее предложение.

In the following you will hear utterances. Your negative young 20 3,9 0, task is to judge on a scale from 1 to 7, whether the sentence negative both 43 3, 0, is very acceptable 1 or not acceptable 7.

After hearing positive old 24 2, 0, an utterance, click on a number on the scale and wait for the positive young 20 4,4 0,53 next utterance to judge.

Diskussion Mit 12 bzw. Der erwartete Sprechergenerationsunterschied der 5. Bibliographie [1] Urum Documentation Project. Oxford Concise Dictionary of Linguistics.

Handbook of Endangered Turkic Languages. Harvard Working Papers in Linguistics X. Therefore it is expected that the use of described as expressing future time reference Skopeteas Besides it expresses a habitual aspect used to describe Modern Turkish.

In the following a production study, general and durative events. In order to understand the concerning the Urum Aorist, is presented.

It was conducted to semantics of the Urum Aorist, a production study was understand the semantics of the Urum Aorist. The results show a section A.

Research Background is given about modern tendency for the Aorist to be found rather in future and habitual Turkish see section a Turkish and its consequences for than in past and punctual contexts.

The combination of future Urum see section b Urum. Afterwards some general facts and habitual contexts evokes the highest number of Aorist of nowadays Situation of Urum and its speakers are presented occurrences, whereas the past plus punctual context shows the see section B.

The following section smallest number of utterances with Aorist. Hypotheses contains the two hypotheses and their motivation out of the grammatical knowledge about Turkish and Urum Index Terms: Caucasian Urum, Turkish variety, Aorist, see section A.

Hypothesis 1 and the sociolinguistical tense, aspect, production, habituality, punctuality, future, past situation of Urum see section B. The next section deals with the Methods the methods with which the beforehand dicussed hypotheses should be tested.

Then Introduction Results are presented and discussed see section Discussion and finally a Conclusion is given. Research Background different indo-european languages like Bulgarian, Greek and Old Indic, and also in the Caucasian language Georgian.

There the label describes a mixture of both- is a feature showing inconsistent and some kind of present tense or a habitual aspect indicating varying terminology.

To find out why one should take a The capital letters are abstract exponents for all possible realisations of the vowel corresponding to the Turkish vowel harmony see: In Greek the Aorist is used for past Kornfilt Turkish has two processes of vowel harmony cf.

The first assimilate in frontness agrees with some uses of the Turkish Aorist as we will see in with the last vowel of the stem.

The latter assimilate in frontness and the following sections. All usages of the Turkish Aorist- roundedness with the last vowel of the stem.

Urum behaves a little different concerning the I-suffixes, but this Aorist will be discussed in the following section. For further information to Urum see Skopeteas There is also possible variation concerning consonants regarding voicing.

In the following different approaches concerning the content and functon of the Aorist morpheme are presented. In this the function delineated be her seems related to functions sense the Aorist expresses a habitual aspect and is also used to described by the preciding authors.

In her opinion all tense reveal an elementary characteristic or disposition of a person. Likewise for them both itself.

The difference is that when using the the Aorist to have a future time reference, but in this usage it Aorist the utterance emphasizes the recurrence of the situation does not combine with the future morpheme - y AcAk as it can in the sense of a typical pattern, as can be seen in 4.

When with the past copula — y DI see 4 to emphasize the using the progressive morpheme, the ongoing action and the habituality of an event.

It is used to make assumptions 10 or incompleteness of the situation is stressed see 3. Other uses include offers, commitments and promises.

A possible combination with past is not listed at all. These open questions led to the creation of the study presented start-FUT in the following sections.

Situation of Urum glossed by Schellenbach Before diving into the concrete study the actual situation of the language Urum and its speakers has to be covered.

To be able to handle all the confusion arising from the The Urum speakers are a community that emigrated from different approaches and terminological differences Anatolia at the beginning of the 19th century.

Urum is a poorly documented and endangered language. A He argues that concerning its tense-aspect-system, Turkish census from amounts the number of Urum people living makes a basic opposition between past expressed by the past in the Region Tsalka to 30, Tbilisi, to neighbouring countries like Russia and Kerslake This tense marker can be Greece.

The migration process led to a strong decrease of 14 gid-er-di-n Urum speakers to in Wheatly All speakers of Urum are at least bilingual in Russian and Urum cf.

Urum shows vowel harmony similar to Standard Turkish. Hypothesis 1 Kerslake define also temporal and modal functions for the aorist as metioned before.

The question which arose was: In this sense the Aorist emphasize among others especially the habitual aspect as should be regarded as an aspect, and not a tense.

As the subject language Aorist in Urum is considered to have future time reference, we Georgian Russian Urum Greek English Turkish decided to test a future condition against a past condition.

Habituality was the second defining quality of the Aorist 1 6 6 6 0 0 0 morpheme so habitual activity was compared to a punctual 2 6 6 6 0 0 0 activity.

Hypothesis 2 total 64 68 68 16 6 6 A second hypothesis arose from the situation of Urum average 5. Urum can be described as an endangered language because of the decreasing number of competent speakers and Out of the 12 speakers 6 were considered as belonging to the the decrease of language competence in the younger old generation born between and and 6 were generations.

One reasons for this is the emigration to the cities. The borderline concerning the age and also the intense language contact to Russian.

The Aorist in was Decreasing language competence should be visible on such a low frequent feature of the language like the Aorist is. In addition the B.

Preliminary considerations for the experiment design and category Aorist is not available in one of the contact languages. TMA systems by manipulating the context of different verbs.

The stimuli sentences were presented directly Maybe it is also the case that the older generation uses the in the target language Urum via headphones and the Aorist more competent than the younger generation or in a participants had to produce the verb in Urum.

By this possible different way. The interest of this study was to find out under which temporal A total of 12 5 male, 7 female multilingual speakers of Urum and aspectual conditions the Aorist suffix will take place.

For between 15 and 51 years average age: They were all living in Tbilisi. Before participating in the experiment, he participants had to fill in, how often they speak the following languages on a scale from 0 never to 6 fluently see table 1.

Standing in front of a house target sentence: Task All stimuli sentences were presented to the subjects without the verb.

The participant had to fill in the missing verb. To Participants had to listen to the stimuli sentences, which were make it easier to find a fitting verb, the missing target verb interrupted before the verb.

The task was to complete the was represented by a picture that was shown to the sentence to produce the missing verbal form. Participants saw participants on a screen.

The picture showed the action and the stimuli pictures showing the action to help them to find an agents taking place in each stimuli sentence see fig.

For the full instruction task see Appendix I. For all stimuli pictures see Appendix II. Stimuli Structure and Design Figure 5.

Additionally 16 filler sentences were designed. They had the yesterday at 12 the grandmother a tea drank structure: As for the stimuli sentences the missing part, the object, was presented as a The factor tense had two levels, namely future and past, picture see fig.

Stimuli picture for the object CAT From this a 2x2 design arose see fig. For each of the 16 verbs 4 contexts were build by The stimuli sentences have been translated produced and manipulating the factors tense and aspect see fig.

So the recorded by a young, female, native speaker of Urum. They stimuli-list consisted of 64 different stimuli sentences. Afterwards the verb was cut off with Praat.

The instruction and task was the same for PST both parts of the experiments. Sometimes it was hard to tell the Aorist morpheme -Ir apart F.

Procedure from the imperfective form - i er. The instruction and the stimuli were presented on a laptop with the programme DMDX. After Hypotheses 1 and 2 reading the instruction, the participant had to navigate themselves through the experiment by pushing the space key.

The population was separted in two groups, young and old There was no automatic time-out after each stimulus. During the experiment the that the Aorist occurs more often in the often in the future participants wore headphones to listen to the stimuli sentences.

As already relative frequency of Aorist out of 48 possible answers per mentioned, the task was to complete the listened sentence with factor. So after listening the Also according to the hypothesis the Aorist is used more often participant had to produce the missing word.

The whole in the habitual condition Data shows the following continuum: Usage of the Aorist among old speakers Results The whole available data for the analysis consisted of target verbs articulated by the participants.

Invalid data were dropped from the analysis. Data considered as non-valid were data, in which the participant did not answer in Urum 1 case , did not produce a verb at the end of the sentence 1 case , the given answer could not be understood 1 case or if there was no response at all 3 cases.

All answers given by the participants can be seen in the table Table 3. Usage of Aorist among old speakers below see table 2. Generalized Linear Mixed Effects Model are less distinct.

Even if it can be said that Aorist is used more often in the future condition 6 utterances, Answers given Discussion by the two agegroups showed that the older speakers used the Aorist morpheme 31 times out of 96 possible utterances The results showed that is more likely for the Aorist to appear The usage of Urum times out of 96 utterances According to the Aorist therefore seems to be quite similar to the usage of the expectation following out of hypothesis 2 the frequence of Turkish Aorist.

In both languages it is clearly preferred when a Aorist is way smaller in the younger generation and it reoccurring action should be expressed.

In Turkish grammars becomes also visible that the younger generation used the it is not clearly stated, that the Aorist does show a preference Aorist in a different way.

Younger speakers use the Aorsit in to occur rather in utterances referring to the future. The general more often when wanting to express habituality.

Turkish Aorist can also be found in combination with the past Taking a look at the continuum mentioned for the older morpheme. For Urum a preference for future contexts could generation a different pattern becomes apparent: Is it a lack of competence that gets particularly The young speakers use the Aorist morpheme in a different visible when speakers use rare features in their language?

First the total number of Aorist morphemes used at all is different pattern for the young speakers cannot be explained smaller. The young speakers used the Aorist only 11 times in by a language contact situation with Russian or Georgian.

What is called Aorist in Georgian is, similar to 9. In future context they used the Aorist to the same extent in Greek, expressing past perfective aspect.

Thus an influence the habitual and punctual context. The different usage of Aorist in the young generation may therefore be interpreted Figure 8.

Usage of the Aorist among young speakers as attrition in language competence or even as a sign of a beginning language death.

As the Urum language seems not to be the most important factor for the community to construct their ethnical identity the decreasing language competence might not be a problem for Urum speakers.

Even if the Aorist is preferred when wanting to express habitual actions in the future in Urum, it was also found in all the other experimental conditions.

It could therefore be like in Turkish a concept of expressing non-definite time reference. How can it be explained, that a morpheme expressing non- definite time reference is used particularly in the future plus habitual condition.

It makes some sort of sense, if you take a look on the imperfective aspect habituality. It is kind of similar to the generic rule that can be expressed with Aorist in Turkish punctual 1 4.

It was also model was used with factors agegroup, tense and aspect and tested how the future morpheme in future plus habitual versus the random factors participant and item.

Three main effects future plus punctual contexts is rated and it became visible could be found, namely for tense, aspect and age group see that the future affix is more linked to punctual actions in the table 5.

A agegroups could be attested. Elements of Greek grammar. Taken more to be done to understand the whole concept of the Aorist chiefly from the grammar of Caspar Frederick Hachenberg.

It would for example be important to analyse the Third edition. Aorist in comparison to other TMA markers of Urum. A comprehensive morpheme is also used to state generic rules or general Grammar.

The Usage of the Aorist in Habitual and temporal, aspectual and maybe even modal contexts of the event, than in the presented experiment, have to be made.

An Punctual Actions in the Future: An Acceptability Study interesting production study addressing the aspect of contrafactility in the usage of the aorist was conducted by Jendraschek, Gerd A fresh look at the tense-aspect Franz It might also be worth testing, if the adverbial expressions at the beginning of the sentences provoked some kind of Kornfilt, J.

What the experiment also could not show Lewis, G. Oxford University is if the Aorist is rather some sort of aspect or some sort of tense or a mixture of both.

The tense of Verbs. The results showed that the Aorist suffix is more likely to Oxford University Press. Caucasian Urums and Urum language.

The future plus habituality condition evoked the In Eker, S. Handbook of Endangered Turkic highest number of Aorist morphemes.

Concerning the two generations in Urum a decreasing usage of Aorist could be shown. This change in usage may be rooted in Skopeteas, S.

Language documentation in decreasing language competence in the younger generation repeated-observations design: Vowel harmony and noun Thanks to Stavros Skopeteas for providing us the opportunity inflection in Caucasian Urum.

Manuscript of the Urum to take place in a fieldwork excursion to Tbilisi. He was a documentation project, University of Bremen.

Also special thanks to Violeta Wheatley, Jonathan Defusing conflict in Tsalka district Moisidi for translating and recording the stimuli sentences, of Georgia: Working Papers 36 European Centre for Minority the participants, hosting us in Tbilisi during our stay and being Issues.

The University of Arizona, Tucson Arizona. Tense and Aspect Systems. Instruction of the task: Вы услышите предложения, где отсутствует последнее слово.

Вы должны дополнить предложение отсутствующим словом. Это слово будет показана на картинке. The verbal morphology This article examines the usage of the Aorist in the allows the combination of an aspect and tense marker after Caucasian Urum language, a Turkish variety spoken by an the verb stem.

The aim of this study is to investigate the function of the aorist. Whereas in modern Turkish the Aorist represents a tense with non- 1.

Aorist definite time reference, in the Urum language it may be interpreted with future time reference. To verify this assumption an acceptability task different kind of events, referring to various aspects and was performed comparing punctual actions and habitual tenses.

In Greek, for example, it is used for perfective aspects actions that are going to happen in future contexts. For this and refers to past events [6].

It is different in Turkish, where the acceptance of sentences with a Future suffix at the verb the Aorist form denotes continuing activity, events in a versus the Aorist suffix at the verb were tested.

Other sources state that the Aorist may also be connected to a future, habitual event. In Russian, the language that Index terms: Russian distinguishes between perfective and imperfective aspects in different kind of ways; by prefixation of the verb, internal modification, derivation from different kind of roots or even stress see [9], p.

Preliminaries In what context the Aorist form is used in the Urum language 1. Urum Language is not clear yet. Coming from the usage in Turkish there should be a habitual meaning when using a predicate with the The Urum language belongs to the Turkic Languages and Aorist suffix.

The Aorist is said to be a tense with non- with its only few speakers, it is an endangered language see definite temporal reference and is expressed by the suffix —Ir [1], p.

The speakers are of Greek origin but consider and is added to the verb stem. After the suffix of negation - themselves as being Greek, sometimes without even speaking ma , it is changed to the allomorph —z and attached the Greek language.

They settled from present-day Turkey to afterwards. The Anatolian variety of the Turkish language is spoken in the Caucasus, in parts of the highlands of Georgia.

Research Question bilinguality of the speakers it is influenced by Russian, manifested by numerous Russian words in the lexicon of the The substrate of the Urum language is Anatolian Turkish and Urum language.

There is no writing tradition in Urum see a previous study see [10] showed that the relation between [3]. Most of the speakers start to learn writing in Russian, standard Turkish and Caucasian Urum based on common some in Georgian.

When written texts are needed, Urum word frequency is very close. As studies about Caucasian speakers switch to Modern Turkish writing conventions or Urum are rare, there is little information about this language the Urum people refer to Greek texts from the past.

In addition there is the fact of non-writing that are only few texts in Urum language available with non- hinders a collection of conventions and rules and even if consistent writing.

Like Modern Turkish the Urum language something was written down, the generality would not be is an agglutinating language with vowel harmony and free guaranteed.

The basic idea of the study was to gather more word order [4]. As there is a at least bilingual, the self-evaluation should give information close link between Urum and modern Turkish, it seems about what languages are spoken and how well.

The obvious that the usage of the Aorist is identical or at least questionnaire gave Georgian, Russian and Urum as similar. In the case of the Russian influence in Urum possibilities and some free space for other languages.

The questionnaire contained the questions in events that do not refer to a precise point of time, rather Georgian script Mkhedruli , Russian script Cyrillic and should the Aorist be a marker for a habitual action 1 on the English script Latin.

The pre-experimental questionnaire gave language competences as described in the following. PL a good level. PL English En average: These results about language Based on this hypothesis, an experiment composed of two competence fit to previous found data, mentioned in literature parts, a production task, see [11], and an acceptability task, about language competences of the Urum people e.

This paper deals with the acceptability study [10]. Participants 3 14 5 6 6 3 4 0 4 53 6 6 6 0 0 0 In the experiment of February twelve participants, 5 21 6 6 4 2 2 0 seven female and five male, took part who were between 14 6 19 6 5 4 0 0 0 and 59 years old average age of All participants lived in 7 38 6 6 6 0 0 0 or near Tbilisi and were recruited by Violeta Moisidi.

Half of 8 59 3 6 6 0 0 0 the participants were born before , half of them after 9 37 3 6 6 6 0 6 , so that two groups, old speakers and young speakers, 10 16 5 4 6 0 0 0 could be built, as there seems to be a change in generations 11 49 6 5 6 5 0 0 see [10].

All of them were multilingual, speaking besides 12 49 6 6 6 0 0 0 Urum at least two of the following languages: Georgian, Av 36 5.

Their competence of these languages was asked in a questionnaire in the beginning 2. Procedure of the experiment.

They were remunerated with 15 GEL The experimental session started with the production task. Georgian Lari for taking part in the experiment, as they had Second part was another experiment, investigating on the journey and invested time.

The communication with the possession in Urum see [12] , which was used as a buffer participants was ensured by Violeta Moisidi, who was between the production and the acceptability task.

The latter instructed what to tell them, if problems or questions started afterwards. During this part the participants sat in occurred.

Language Competence with headphones on. For the implementation and visualization of the item the freeware program DMDX see In the beginning of the experiment the participants were [13] was used.

First an introduction in Russian2 appeared on asked to fill in a questionnaire 1 about their language the screen, which said that the participants would listen to competence.

If no questions occurred, the tense marker, followed by an aspect marker, then a nominal participants could start the experiment by pushing a random phrase NP as the subject and another NP for the object button.

Otherwise Violeta Moisidi was present to translate followed. At the end of the sentences the inflected form of and clarify questions. After the rating of 24 sentences, a note the verb, using the future suffix or the Aorist suffix, occurred.

The acceptability task Table 2: Sentence Structure alone took about three to five minutes. Design The situations described in the sentences were everyday life actions, which could be explained with high frequently used Basis for the design was a Latin Square Design with 2x2 words.

The decision for the verbs used in the sentences were conditions, namely habituality habitual vs. As for the stimuli for the production task [11].

From there only the acceptability task only the future conditions were taken into sentences in the future condition see Figure 1: Example of account, only the sentences describing actions in the future Acceptability Task were taken, leading to a 1x2-factor were used.

Instead of the gap in the end of the sentences, as it design, existing of tense future and habituality punctual vs. One of four sets consisting of 24 sentences each was added, containing either an Aorist suffix AOR or a was presented to the participants.

Eight of the 24 sentences future suffix FUT see example 3 a - d4. The stimuli sentences were presented via audio recordings; translated, checked and recorded beforehand.

Example of Acceptability Task once. Every set was rated by three c. Acceptability Task TenseFuture The data were exported into Excel for modulation and construction of tables and further the program R was used for This result, as well as previous findings see [10] made us to statistical analysis; descriptive statistics as well as inferential have a closer look at the two groups; young and old speakers, statistics.

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F1 wolf bites sheep photo F8. F3 class of high school students looking at teacher photo F9. F5 mother kissing child photo F F7 hand on doorhandle of open door photo F8 group of young people clinking beer bottles photo F F10 person with vacuum and feather duster clipart F F12 worker building a wall clipart F F14 man kneeling with present in front of women photo F Instructions Following are the instructions for the production task task one in the English original and the Russian translation presented to the participants: In the following you will hear sentences, where the last word is missing.

You have to finish the sentence by speaking out loud this missing word. The missing word is shown in the picture, you will see on the screen.

The results show a general nachweisbar, siehe [6]. Aorist-Morphem im Konsequenzteil des Satzes zu finden, nicht jedoch im Bedingungsteil, wie in Beispiel 2 zu sehen.

Aspektform, die in vgl. Dies ist in Beispiel 3 zu sehen. Hierbei markiert der 3 a. Als Stimuli dienen beinhalten. Abschnitt 3 befasst sich mit den und negativer Variante, siehe 5.

Versionen des Experiments verteilt. Der Altersdurchschnitt lag bei 36 Jahren. Dies veranschaulicht eine Sprachgebrauch des Urum zu bewerten.

Russisch sowohl in auditiver als auch visueller Form gezeigt, Betrachtet man die einzelnen Sprechergenerationen — alt siehe 4. Altersgruppen deutlich zu sehen.

После того, как вы услышите предложение, нажмите на выбранную вами цифру и polarity age group n mean score SE value ждите следующее предложение.

In the following you will hear utterances. Your negative young 20 3,9 0, task is to judge on a scale from 1 to 7, whether the sentence negative both 43 3, 0, is very acceptable 1 or not acceptable 7.

After hearing positive old 24 2, 0, an utterance, click on a number on the scale and wait for the positive young 20 4,4 0,53 next utterance to judge.

Diskussion Mit 12 bzw. Der erwartete Sprechergenerationsunterschied der 5. Bibliographie [1] Urum Documentation Project.

Oxford Concise Dictionary of Linguistics. Handbook of Endangered Turkic Languages. Harvard Working Papers in Linguistics X.

Therefore it is expected that the use of described as expressing future time reference Skopeteas Besides it expresses a habitual aspect used to describe Modern Turkish.

In the following a production study, general and durative events. In order to understand the concerning the Urum Aorist, is presented. It was conducted to semantics of the Urum Aorist, a production study was understand the semantics of the Urum Aorist.

The results show a section A. Research Background is given about modern tendency for the Aorist to be found rather in future and habitual Turkish see section a Turkish and its consequences for than in past and punctual contexts.

The combination of future Urum see section b Urum. Afterwards some general facts and habitual contexts evokes the highest number of Aorist of nowadays Situation of Urum and its speakers are presented occurrences, whereas the past plus punctual context shows the see section B.

The following section smallest number of utterances with Aorist. Hypotheses contains the two hypotheses and their motivation out of the grammatical knowledge about Turkish and Urum Index Terms: Caucasian Urum, Turkish variety, Aorist, see section A.

Hypothesis 1 and the sociolinguistical tense, aspect, production, habituality, punctuality, future, past situation of Urum see section B.

The next section deals with the Methods the methods with which the beforehand dicussed hypotheses should be tested.

Then Introduction Results are presented and discussed see section Discussion and finally a Conclusion is given. Research Background different indo-european languages like Bulgarian, Greek and Old Indic, and also in the Caucasian language Georgian.

There the label describes a mixture of both- is a feature showing inconsistent and some kind of present tense or a habitual aspect indicating varying terminology.

To find out why one should take a The capital letters are abstract exponents for all possible realisations of the vowel corresponding to the Turkish vowel harmony see: In Greek the Aorist is used for past Kornfilt Turkish has two processes of vowel harmony cf.

The first assimilate in frontness agrees with some uses of the Turkish Aorist as we will see in with the last vowel of the stem.

The latter assimilate in frontness and the following sections. All usages of the Turkish Aorist- roundedness with the last vowel of the stem.

Urum behaves a little different concerning the I-suffixes, but this Aorist will be discussed in the following section. For further information to Urum see Skopeteas There is also possible variation concerning consonants regarding voicing.

In the following different approaches concerning the content and functon of the Aorist morpheme are presented. In this the function delineated be her seems related to functions sense the Aorist expresses a habitual aspect and is also used to described by the preciding authors.

In her opinion all tense reveal an elementary characteristic or disposition of a person. Likewise for them both itself. The difference is that when using the the Aorist to have a future time reference, but in this usage it Aorist the utterance emphasizes the recurrence of the situation does not combine with the future morpheme - y AcAk as it can in the sense of a typical pattern, as can be seen in 4.

When with the past copula — y DI see 4 to emphasize the using the progressive morpheme, the ongoing action and the habituality of an event.

It is used to make assumptions 10 or incompleteness of the situation is stressed see 3. Other uses include offers, commitments and promises.

A possible combination with past is not listed at all. These open questions led to the creation of the study presented start-FUT in the following sections.

Situation of Urum glossed by Schellenbach Before diving into the concrete study the actual situation of the language Urum and its speakers has to be covered.

To be able to handle all the confusion arising from the The Urum speakers are a community that emigrated from different approaches and terminological differences Anatolia at the beginning of the 19th century.

Urum is a poorly documented and endangered language. A He argues that concerning its tense-aspect-system, Turkish census from amounts the number of Urum people living makes a basic opposition between past expressed by the past in the Region Tsalka to 30, Tbilisi, to neighbouring countries like Russia and Kerslake This tense marker can be Greece.

The migration process led to a strong decrease of 14 gid-er-di-n Urum speakers to in Wheatly All speakers of Urum are at least bilingual in Russian and Urum cf.

Urum shows vowel harmony similar to Standard Turkish. Hypothesis 1 Kerslake define also temporal and modal functions for the aorist as metioned before.

The question which arose was: In this sense the Aorist emphasize among others especially the habitual aspect as should be regarded as an aspect, and not a tense.

As the subject language Aorist in Urum is considered to have future time reference, we Georgian Russian Urum Greek English Turkish decided to test a future condition against a past condition.

Habituality was the second defining quality of the Aorist 1 6 6 6 0 0 0 morpheme so habitual activity was compared to a punctual 2 6 6 6 0 0 0 activity.

Hypothesis 2 total 64 68 68 16 6 6 A second hypothesis arose from the situation of Urum average 5. Urum can be described as an endangered language because of the decreasing number of competent speakers and Out of the 12 speakers 6 were considered as belonging to the the decrease of language competence in the younger old generation born between and and 6 were generations.

One reasons for this is the emigration to the cities. The borderline concerning the age and also the intense language contact to Russian.

The Aorist in was Decreasing language competence should be visible on such a low frequent feature of the language like the Aorist is.

In addition the B. Preliminary considerations for the experiment design and category Aorist is not available in one of the contact languages.

TMA systems by manipulating the context of different verbs. The stimuli sentences were presented directly Maybe it is also the case that the older generation uses the in the target language Urum via headphones and the Aorist more competent than the younger generation or in a participants had to produce the verb in Urum.

By this possible different way. The interest of this study was to find out under which temporal A total of 12 5 male, 7 female multilingual speakers of Urum and aspectual conditions the Aorist suffix will take place.

For between 15 and 51 years average age: They were all living in Tbilisi. Before participating in the experiment, he participants had to fill in, how often they speak the following languages on a scale from 0 never to 6 fluently see table 1.

Standing in front of a house target sentence: Task All stimuli sentences were presented to the subjects without the verb. The participant had to fill in the missing verb.

To Participants had to listen to the stimuli sentences, which were make it easier to find a fitting verb, the missing target verb interrupted before the verb.

The task was to complete the was represented by a picture that was shown to the sentence to produce the missing verbal form. Participants saw participants on a screen.

The picture showed the action and the stimuli pictures showing the action to help them to find an agents taking place in each stimuli sentence see fig.

For the full instruction task see Appendix I. For all stimuli pictures see Appendix II. Stimuli Structure and Design Figure 5.

Additionally 16 filler sentences were designed. They had the yesterday at 12 the grandmother a tea drank structure: As for the stimuli sentences the missing part, the object, was presented as a The factor tense had two levels, namely future and past, picture see fig.

Stimuli picture for the object CAT From this a 2x2 design arose see fig. For each of the 16 verbs 4 contexts were build by The stimuli sentences have been translated produced and manipulating the factors tense and aspect see fig.

So the recorded by a young, female, native speaker of Urum. They stimuli-list consisted of 64 different stimuli sentences.

Afterwards the verb was cut off with Praat. The instruction and task was the same for PST both parts of the experiments.

Sometimes it was hard to tell the Aorist morpheme -Ir apart F. Procedure from the imperfective form - i er. The instruction and the stimuli were presented on a laptop with the programme DMDX.

After Hypotheses 1 and 2 reading the instruction, the participant had to navigate themselves through the experiment by pushing the space key. The population was separted in two groups, young and old There was no automatic time-out after each stimulus.

During the experiment the that the Aorist occurs more often in the often in the future participants wore headphones to listen to the stimuli sentences.

As already relative frequency of Aorist out of 48 possible answers per mentioned, the task was to complete the listened sentence with factor.

So after listening the Also according to the hypothesis the Aorist is used more often participant had to produce the missing word.

The whole in the habitual condition Data shows the following continuum: Usage of the Aorist among old speakers Results The whole available data for the analysis consisted of target verbs articulated by the participants.

Invalid data were dropped from the analysis. Data considered as non-valid were data, in which the participant did not answer in Urum 1 case , did not produce a verb at the end of the sentence 1 case , the given answer could not be understood 1 case or if there was no response at all 3 cases.

All answers given by the participants can be seen in the table Table 3. Usage of Aorist among old speakers below see table 2.

Generalized Linear Mixed Effects Model are less distinct. Even if it can be said that Aorist is used more often in the future condition 6 utterances, Answers given Discussion by the two agegroups showed that the older speakers used the Aorist morpheme 31 times out of 96 possible utterances The results showed that is more likely for the Aorist to appear The usage of Urum times out of 96 utterances According to the Aorist therefore seems to be quite similar to the usage of the expectation following out of hypothesis 2 the frequence of Turkish Aorist.

In both languages it is clearly preferred when a Aorist is way smaller in the younger generation and it reoccurring action should be expressed. In Turkish grammars becomes also visible that the younger generation used the it is not clearly stated, that the Aorist does show a preference Aorist in a different way.

Younger speakers use the Aorsit in to occur rather in utterances referring to the future. The general more often when wanting to express habituality.

Turkish Aorist can also be found in combination with the past Taking a look at the continuum mentioned for the older morpheme.

For Urum a preference for future contexts could generation a different pattern becomes apparent: Is it a lack of competence that gets particularly The young speakers use the Aorist morpheme in a different visible when speakers use rare features in their language?

First the total number of Aorist morphemes used at all is different pattern for the young speakers cannot be explained smaller. The young speakers used the Aorist only 11 times in by a language contact situation with Russian or Georgian.

What is called Aorist in Georgian is, similar to 9. In future context they used the Aorist to the same extent in Greek, expressing past perfective aspect.

Thus an influence the habitual and punctual context. The different usage of Aorist in the young generation may therefore be interpreted Figure 8.

Usage of the Aorist among young speakers as attrition in language competence or even as a sign of a beginning language death.

As the Urum language seems not to be the most important factor for the community to construct their ethnical identity the decreasing language competence might not be a problem for Urum speakers.

Even if the Aorist is preferred when wanting to express habitual actions in the future in Urum, it was also found in all the other experimental conditions.

It could therefore be like in Turkish a concept of expressing non-definite time reference. How can it be explained, that a morpheme expressing non- definite time reference is used particularly in the future plus habitual condition.

It makes some sort of sense, if you take a look on the imperfective aspect habituality. It is kind of similar to the generic rule that can be expressed with Aorist in Turkish punctual 1 4.

It was also model was used with factors agegroup, tense and aspect and tested how the future morpheme in future plus habitual versus the random factors participant and item.

Three main effects future plus punctual contexts is rated and it became visible could be found, namely for tense, aspect and age group see that the future affix is more linked to punctual actions in the table 5.

A agegroups could be attested. Elements of Greek grammar. Taken more to be done to understand the whole concept of the Aorist chiefly from the grammar of Caspar Frederick Hachenberg.

It would for example be important to analyse the Third edition. Aorist in comparison to other TMA markers of Urum. A comprehensive morpheme is also used to state generic rules or general Grammar.

The Usage of the Aorist in Habitual and temporal, aspectual and maybe even modal contexts of the event, than in the presented experiment, have to be made.

An Punctual Actions in the Future: An Acceptability Study interesting production study addressing the aspect of contrafactility in the usage of the aorist was conducted by Jendraschek, Gerd A fresh look at the tense-aspect Franz It might also be worth testing, if the adverbial expressions at the beginning of the sentences provoked some kind of Kornfilt, J.

What the experiment also could not show Lewis, G. Oxford University is if the Aorist is rather some sort of aspect or some sort of tense or a mixture of both.

The tense of Verbs. The results showed that the Aorist suffix is more likely to Oxford University Press. Caucasian Urums and Urum language.

The future plus habituality condition evoked the In Eker, S. Handbook of Endangered Turkic highest number of Aorist morphemes.

Concerning the two generations in Urum a decreasing usage of Aorist could be shown. This change in usage may be rooted in Skopeteas, S.

Language documentation in decreasing language competence in the younger generation repeated-observations design: Vowel harmony and noun Thanks to Stavros Skopeteas for providing us the opportunity inflection in Caucasian Urum.

Manuscript of the Urum to take place in a fieldwork excursion to Tbilisi. He was a documentation project, University of Bremen. Also special thanks to Violeta Wheatley, Jonathan Defusing conflict in Tsalka district Moisidi for translating and recording the stimuli sentences, of Georgia: Working Papers 36 European Centre for Minority the participants, hosting us in Tbilisi during our stay and being Issues.

The University of Arizona, Tucson Arizona. Tense and Aspect Systems. Instruction of the task: Вы услышите предложения, где отсутствует последнее слово.

Вы должны дополнить предложение отсутствующим словом. Это слово будет показана на картинке. The verbal morphology This article examines the usage of the Aorist in the allows the combination of an aspect and tense marker after Caucasian Urum language, a Turkish variety spoken by an the verb stem.

The aim of this study is to investigate the function of the aorist. Whereas in modern Turkish the Aorist represents a tense with non- 1.

Aorist definite time reference, in the Urum language it may be interpreted with future time reference.

To verify this assumption an acceptability task different kind of events, referring to various aspects and was performed comparing punctual actions and habitual tenses.

In Greek, for example, it is used for perfective aspects actions that are going to happen in future contexts. For this and refers to past events [6].

It is different in Turkish, where the acceptance of sentences with a Future suffix at the verb the Aorist form denotes continuing activity, events in a versus the Aorist suffix at the verb were tested.

Other sources state that the Aorist may also be connected to a future, habitual event. In Russian, the language that Index terms: Russian distinguishes between perfective and imperfective aspects in different kind of ways; by prefixation of the verb, internal modification, derivation from different kind of roots or even stress see [9], p.

Preliminaries In what context the Aorist form is used in the Urum language 1. Urum Language is not clear yet. Coming from the usage in Turkish there should be a habitual meaning when using a predicate with the The Urum language belongs to the Turkic Languages and Aorist suffix.

The Aorist is said to be a tense with non- with its only few speakers, it is an endangered language see definite temporal reference and is expressed by the suffix —Ir [1], p.

The speakers are of Greek origin but consider and is added to the verb stem. After the suffix of negation - themselves as being Greek, sometimes without even speaking ma , it is changed to the allomorph —z and attached the Greek language.

They settled from present-day Turkey to afterwards. The Anatolian variety of the Turkish language is spoken in the Caucasus, in parts of the highlands of Georgia.

Research Question bilinguality of the speakers it is influenced by Russian, manifested by numerous Russian words in the lexicon of the The substrate of the Urum language is Anatolian Turkish and Urum language.

There is no writing tradition in Urum see a previous study see [10] showed that the relation between [3]. Most of the speakers start to learn writing in Russian, standard Turkish and Caucasian Urum based on common some in Georgian.

When written texts are needed, Urum word frequency is very close. As studies about Caucasian speakers switch to Modern Turkish writing conventions or Urum are rare, there is little information about this language the Urum people refer to Greek texts from the past.

In addition there is the fact of non-writing that are only few texts in Urum language available with non- hinders a collection of conventions and rules and even if consistent writing.

Like Modern Turkish the Urum language something was written down, the generality would not be is an agglutinating language with vowel harmony and free guaranteed.

The basic idea of the study was to gather more word order [4]. As there is a at least bilingual, the self-evaluation should give information close link between Urum and modern Turkish, it seems about what languages are spoken and how well.

The obvious that the usage of the Aorist is identical or at least questionnaire gave Georgian, Russian and Urum as similar. In the case of the Russian influence in Urum possibilities and some free space for other languages.

The questionnaire contained the questions in events that do not refer to a precise point of time, rather Georgian script Mkhedruli , Russian script Cyrillic and should the Aorist be a marker for a habitual action 1 on the English script Latin.

The pre-experimental questionnaire gave language competences as described in the following. PL a good level. PL English En average: These results about language Based on this hypothesis, an experiment composed of two competence fit to previous found data, mentioned in literature parts, a production task, see [11], and an acceptability task, about language competences of the Urum people e.

This paper deals with the acceptability study [10]. Participants 3 14 5 6 6 3 4 0 4 53 6 6 6 0 0 0 In the experiment of February twelve participants, 5 21 6 6 4 2 2 0 seven female and five male, took part who were between 14 6 19 6 5 4 0 0 0 and 59 years old average age of All participants lived in 7 38 6 6 6 0 0 0 or near Tbilisi and were recruited by Violeta Moisidi.

Half of 8 59 3 6 6 0 0 0 the participants were born before , half of them after 9 37 3 6 6 6 0 6 , so that two groups, old speakers and young speakers, 10 16 5 4 6 0 0 0 could be built, as there seems to be a change in generations 11 49 6 5 6 5 0 0 see [10].

All of them were multilingual, speaking besides 12 49 6 6 6 0 0 0 Urum at least two of the following languages: Georgian, Av 36 5.

Their competence of these languages was asked in a questionnaire in the beginning 2. Procedure of the experiment.

They were remunerated with 15 GEL The experimental session started with the production task. Georgian Lari for taking part in the experiment, as they had Second part was another experiment, investigating on the journey and invested time.

The communication with the possession in Urum see [12] , which was used as a buffer participants was ensured by Violeta Moisidi, who was between the production and the acceptability task.

The latter instructed what to tell them, if problems or questions started afterwards. During this part the participants sat in occurred.

Language Competence with headphones on. For the implementation and visualization of the item the freeware program DMDX see In the beginning of the experiment the participants were [13] was used.

First an introduction in Russian2 appeared on asked to fill in a questionnaire 1 about their language the screen, which said that the participants would listen to competence.

If no questions occurred, the tense marker, followed by an aspect marker, then a nominal participants could start the experiment by pushing a random phrase NP as the subject and another NP for the object button.

Otherwise Violeta Moisidi was present to translate followed. At the end of the sentences the inflected form of and clarify questions.

After the rating of 24 sentences, a note the verb, using the future suffix or the Aorist suffix, occurred. The acceptability task Table 2: Sentence Structure alone took about three to five minutes.

Design The situations described in the sentences were everyday life actions, which could be explained with high frequently used Basis for the design was a Latin Square Design with 2x2 words.

The decision for the verbs used in the sentences were conditions, namely habituality habitual vs. As for the stimuli for the production task [11].

From there only the acceptability task only the future conditions were taken into sentences in the future condition see Figure 1: Example of account, only the sentences describing actions in the future Acceptability Task were taken, leading to a 1x2-factor were used.

Instead of the gap in the end of the sentences, as it design, existing of tense future and habituality punctual vs. One of four sets consisting of 24 sentences each was added, containing either an Aorist suffix AOR or a was presented to the participants.

Eight of the 24 sentences future suffix FUT see example 3 a - d4. The stimuli sentences were presented via audio recordings; translated, checked and recorded beforehand.

Example of Acceptability Task once. Uma casinha muito acolhedora em meio a um lugar lindo e sossegado! A nossa estada foi deliciosa.

Welcome drink Top quality! We had a wonderful time and hopefully come back soon as possible. Best apartment in Hortas da Tabual. Todo muy bien, la villa muy tranquila y carlos muy amable.

Lo mejor, las vistas desde la terraza. This place really offered everything we needed. From the nice terrace we had a wonderful view onto the bay of zavial and did seafood BBQ the whole day.

The little village is super quiet, but with a car you need 10 mins to Vila do Bispo. We were there mainly for surf and work. The WIFI is fast and good.

If you want to surf the west coast its about 15 minutes to Sagres and 30 mins to the more northern beaches like amado and so on.

Another thing to point out: Carlos was super fast on answer all our questions per mail. It was very nice to stay at the house.

Beaches and shops are just 5 min by car and we had a great stay. Great place in a great location! The house is perfect for 2 people but could host 4 easily.

The roof is amazing when the sun shines, perfect to enjoy a BBQ looking at the bush and sea. We would definitely recommend Carlos place!

Eine nette Unterkunft, etwas abseits gelegen, aber nur wenige Autominuten vom Strand entfernt. Beautiful and quiet village.

Close to an amazing beach. Wir hatten alles was wir gebraucht haben, viel Platz, eine Waschmaschine. Es war wirklich super! Der Stand ist mit dem Auto gerade mal 3 Minuten entfernt und ein absoluter Surferspot mit vielen Wellen und mega klarem Meer.

Samuel is a super host! We really enjoyed our stay. The accommodation is located in a small town and in a very calm area. The kitchen as well as the whole flat have everything you need.

We really can recommend to stay at Samuels place! We had the chance to be the first guests at Samuels new and freshly renovated house.

Everything was just about perfect. The village it is located in is really a dream, you can walk to the beach. The house was freshly renovated, everything was perfectly in order and we liked Sanuels taste.

The commutation was quick and very friendly. Whe coming back to portugals south this would be our first address to stay again. Voltaremos certamente, se outra oportunidade houver: A cozy studio in a small Portugese village 2,5 km away from the beaches to the south and approx.

The interior of the studio offers everything you need to feel home. Aude, the owner, is beside being a fantastic host, an excellent physiotherapist.

I do recommend the studio for all who loves being away from crowded beaches and tourism. Staying in this perfectly cosy, well-designed studio gave a wonderful and relaxing final to our trip through the Algarve.

Aude is the perfect host, charasmatic and cheerful. Interested in her guests and talkative: Website hidden by Airbnb Perfect stay!

We spent a lovely week there and we totally recommend it for having a relaxing and peaceful holidays. We had a really good Time in the appartment!

It was clean and had all the things you need in the house. The apartment is exactly as described. As it is located pretty remote you will need a car to reach it and to go shopping for food.

Unfortunately there is not a single shop or supermarket in this very small village, so you will have to drive about 3 km to reach a large supermarket.

But there you will find everything you need! But there are a lot of great fish restaurants and fantastic beaches within the range of 5 km! Overall the apartment gives enough space for three persons, is clean and very quiet.

The kitchen provides everythin you will need to cook your own meals. Samuel even provided us with a free bottle of red wine! We definitely can recommend staying here.

La experiencia en casa de Samuel fue muy buena, estuvimos muy a gusto tanto por el trato recibido como por su hospitalidad.

Muy recomendable desde mi punto de vista! A really nice house in the middle of everything worth to visit in the area! The apartment is clean and functional with a terrace with a grasping view.

Samuel was quick in contact and very helpful. We can really recommend this place. Samuel and his wife welcomed us with a lot of kindness.

The house is really cool, terrace is huge and amenities inside are awesome. The beach nearby is very picturesque and we loved the intimacy of this village.

We loved it an would love to come back! Estamos muito gratos ao Ricardo pelo acolhimento neste fim de semana! The place to stay if you want to spend some time in southern Portugal.

In dem Haus hat es an nichts gefehlt! Ricardo was very nice and gave is a lot of information about the place. His appartment is very lovely decorated and we felt really comfortable.

Ricardo was available all the time and was very helpful. We would definetely come again. Quit and cosy Apartment, perfect for 2 or 3 , with 4 Person I think it could get a little tight.

Ricardo the owner was super nice and helpful - all together we had a wonderful stay. Ricardo gave us great tips on the local area, and we went to some fantastic beaches, restaurants, and towns.

Dolphin watching from Sagres was amazing, as were Cordoama beach and watching the sunset near the lighthouse at Cabo de Sao Vicente!

The town of Lagos was also beautiful, and Zavial beach only about 1 mile along the road past Hortas do Tabual was lovely, and very handy.

We only had four nights so there are lots of things that we intend to come back for, including surfing, kayaking and seeing more of the amazing beaches.

Ricardo ha sido un host atento y preciso. Nos ha dado muchas indicaciones preciosas para visitar playas y lugares interesantes La casa es antigua pero tiene mucho encanto.

Ever dreamed of a secluded retreat in a sleepy Portuguese village with no street names? Scroll no further and book this!

The house is located in a tiny, quiet village you share with locals and a couple of dogs who perform their opera at sun down. Open the door and enter a unique two level space.

The house has an exceptional finish It made us feel right at home. The place where you will spend the most time believe me is the patio.

A beautiful outdoors area with a kick ass pool, loungy furniture and a lemon tree. Enjoy the beautiful view all the way down to the sea.

This house is a gem. Beautiful bathrooms, an all you can wish for kitchen and the best outdoor space ever. To top this thing off: Aude is a wonderful host, communicates like a pro and lives around the corner if you might need anything.

Oh forgot to mention: Beautiful house in a stunning location. If you like peace and quiet with great views and a beautiful beach with excellent waves around the corner, look no further.

Aude is a great host and we had a terrific stay. Also with our toddler. Outstanding hosts, marvelous place and incredible location to explore the Western Algarve.

We can just highly recommend a stay and look forward to staying with Aude and Frederik ourselves any time.

Une magnifique plage se trouve 2km plus bas. We really enjoyed our stay at the house. Lots of condiments to help with cooking and a nice touch with the complimentary wine and chocolates.

Very enjoyable and comfortable stay. We divided our time in Portugal between the Algarve and Lisbon. The weather cooperated nicely during our stay and each morning and evening we took advantage of the patio with views down the valley to Zavial beach.

At night we enjoyed lots of reading and the satellite TV was a nice touch. During the days we took excursions to Sagres minute drive , Lagos minute drive and Portimao 40 minute drive.

Aude had a binder with all kinds of helpful suggestions for activities and dining. We also took advantage of the fact that Aude is a massage therapist who lives a few house away.

We would come back in a heartbeat! A simple house in a nice place not too far from the beach. Especially nice if the weather is good because there is a roof terras and large garden.

Maybe not the fanciest house in the Algarve but definitely good value for money. Spacious, lovely patios outside and an added bonus a sun terrace on top of the house which gives wonderful views.

Very quiet location but only 10 minutes from the sea and 5 minutes by car to the next village where you can get everything you need for your holiday.

Would love to return in the near future. Et dejligt sted, som i den grad levede op til det forventet Et sted jeg gerne vil benytte en anden gang Mitten in der Natur, aber trotzdem sehr gut zu erreichen.

Das hat die altmodische Einrichtung wieder gut gemacht. Feuchtigkeit sobald es etwas regnet. Todo genial, casa impecablemente limpia y maravillosas vistas!

Ha sido un verdadero placer alojarnos en casa de Carlos, volveremos! The location is beautiful, peaceful and quite, with absolutely gorgeous views from the terrace!

It is rather convenient if you have a car - close to excellent beaches and nature attractions. The place is recently renovated, sparkling clean and very well equipped.

We had a minor issue with water leakage, but the host responded promptly, and get it fixed the next day. We loved our stay there so much.

Un poco apartada de raposeira pero en coche son 2 minutos. Tuvimos limpieza a mitad de la semana de estancia. En general, todo correcto.

Out from the main road with the great feel of privacy, still very close to epic places of Sagres. We enjoyed it a lot. My children and I had a fabulous time at this lovely property.

It is a traditional stone bungalow nestled amongst a church, and a couple of other houses too. We had fantastic views, sunsets galore, an amazing family friendly beach called Ingrina we went to daily for our surf lessons you must go!

Their food was delicious too. The house was beautifully done, very comfy beds, fresh linen, great kitchen, modern bathrooms and the TV had an HDMI cable which was really useful to plug my laptop into in the evenings so the kids could have some downtime whilst I made dinner.

The nearest supermarket is 5 minutes away which was great. Overall, it was a beautiful house in a great location and perfectly sized for us!

Thank you so much for being so attentive and for looking after us! Communication with Ricardo is easy and always kind and helpful.

So after all it is a house that will make your holiday great, especially the large living room and the balcony stand out for taking a first cup of coffee in the morning sun.

During the whole process he was always very friendly, kind and communicating with him was fluent, easy and very clear. We arrived at around 10pm and he was there to receive us.

The house is great, very comfortable and just as you can see in the photos on the website. The location is amazing, very quiet and a short ride distance to the beach.

I very much recommend this flat if you want to visit the algarve. Perfect for us - a family. Cosy cottage in top location.

Newly well renovated and comfortable in quiet small village with totally amazing land and seascapes. Ideally located - near to and between great beaches and the small towns with some excellent restaurants and amenities.

Nos hemos sentido como en casa. Y el apartamento esta mejor en persona que en las fotos. The house is located in a very beautiful area of portugal.

Ricardo was very welcoming to us and helped with tips for the village. The house itself has a very nice flair. Overall we really enjoyed our stay.

The accommodation was perfect for us. The sleepingrooms were on the ground floor. Open kitchen and livingroom were on the 1st floor.

Everything was very clean and Ricardo was a perfect host! He gave us a lot of useful recommendations for the area.

Beautiful apartment is and cozy, with all the stuff to cock by yourself. Good position for reaching both west and south coast beaches.

We loved everything about this place. It is a cozy little house,very modern with everything you need for your stay. Worth mentioning how incredibly clean it is!

It is located in a quiet and beautiful village and the view from the house is amazing. The apartment is well furnished with everything you might need, close to two small beaches and great access to the rest of the Algarve.

Thank you for having us! Great experience and lovely house: Clean, modern and cozy. Very close to beautiful beaches. Perfect communication with owners.

It was a wonderful stay! Das Haus lag am Rand eines kleinen Dorfes und wir verbrachten mehrere Nachmittage auf der Sonnenterrasse.

Mit unserem Auto waren wir in kurzer Zeit in den nahegelegenen Orten und den tollen Buchten. Die Kommunikation war gut.

The most wonderful apartment, with views looking down to zaviel and the hills that surround it. It was the perfect place from which to explore, and Ernesto was a wonderful host- thankyou so much for our stay!

Die Unterkunft war sehr angenehm und im Etwa so wie beschrieben. Die Unterkunft liegt sehr ruhig. Es war sehr sauber und vor allem funktionierte die Dusche einwandfrei.

Ernesto und seine Tochter sind sehr gastfreundlich und wenn wir uns trafen, wurde immer gefragt, ob alles ok ist. Einen Laden gibt es in Hortas nicht mehr, es ist ratsam, vorher in Raposeira die ersten Dinge einzukaufen.

Das Restaurant von Ernesto ist auch sehr zu empfehlen. Insgesamt ein toller Aufenthalt und eine empfehlenswerte Unterkunft. Very nice house in a super quite place.

Very well located near sagres , Vila do bispo and a lot of beaches. The house is new, very comfortable bed I will go back for sure: The apartment was very clean and equipped with everything we needed, and the surrounding area was beautiful.

We had some issues checking in could not reach hosts by phone , and had to wait for almost two hours, but for the remainder of our stay all communication was easy and prompt.

Sie liegt in einem kleinem ruhigen Ort, was uns sehr gut gefallen hat. Die Kommunikation mit Neuza Tochter von Ernesto war sehr gut und unkompliziert.

I cannot begin to describe how happy we were with our experience. From the very beginning things were very easy and straight forward.

Because the property beautiful property! Once we entered, we immediately felt comfortable and at home. It was very clean, charming, and inviting!

We loved it immediately and continued to love it throughout our stay. The location is perfect if you would like to explore the western part of the Algarve in my opinion the best part.

We will absolutely return!!! We enjoyed the place very much. The house was charming, practical and clean. Ernesto was a great host. The village is nice and quiet during winter at least.

Ronja and Martin who run the hostel are hardworking and honest people we had a pleasure to meet and talk to during our 3 night stay. Hostel is clean, very uniquely decorated, with nice personal touches inside and in the garden, beds are comfortable, water is hot and good pressure.

The internet connection is great, one of the best connections I had while traveling there. Although the place is very popular among surfers and we are not, we had plenty of things to do and explore the area during the day.

And at night we had fun socializing. Also Martin went above and beyond to accommodate us so we are really grateful for that as well. Definitely will return to the Hostel on the Hill if we ever in the area.

Highly recommend it to anyone who is traveling. Thank you Ronja and Martin! Thank you for everything!!! The people there were very friendly and gave us great hints about activieties and so on.

Furnas Beach was amazing!! We really suggest everybody to spend a night in this beautiful place. That place is so beautiful!

We really enjoyed our stay in that cute little charming hostel! Its in a really calm area with a beautiful view and really lovley hosts.

The breakfast was really yummy and the beaches are very close to reach with the car. I can definitely recommend that place for a beautiful stay in Portugal!

You will have an amazing time ;. Best accomodation we found in Portugal, amazing location in the hills, perfect combination of a quiet and calm surrounding in nature and a friendly and cozy environment to socialise and confront with the other guests about each one experience.

Martin and Roja have been perfect hosts, taking care of us everyday preparing breakfast and sometimes tapas in the evening, always available to suggest the best hiking route or hidden beaches in the area.

We took private twin room with private terace, great value for money, near by best beaches for surfing. Durch das selbstgekochte Dinner der Gastgeberin haben wir dort lustige Abende in netter Gesellschaft verbracht!

We were staying in the double room but the dorm rooms also look amazing with lots of space. Comfy beds and the area is very nice so quiet and beautiful when you wake up!

We received some great tips for the surroundings. Would definitely recommend staying here! Hilfsbereite , freundliche Vermieter! Ideal para uns dias de descanso!

What an amazing house, with a breathtaking view! The house is located in Hortas do Tabual, a beautiful little village near Zavial Beach.

We had such a wonderful time. Thank you very much, Carlos! The views are beautiful, and nature is just steps away with birds, chickens, cats and dogs, all welcoming you to the little neighborhood.

Speaking of neighbors, they are friendly too and the vibe definitely lends itself to decompressing from a stressful life!

Carlos and his local team are beyond helpful and extremely friendly. The listing was appropriate. The village is rather small and quiet.

Everything in this region closes early. It is very peaceful. The house was outstanding. There are hills around. It is a few kms away from the nearest town.

Carlos is a great host. He gave us great directions and also recommended places to eat at. He is very responsive. We had a wonderful time in Hortas do Tabual.

The Casa do Vale was beautiful in all aspects. You have a breathtaking view from all rooms. You can see a peaceful valley and the ocean at the horizone.

Many cats and dogs are joining you. Also there are lovely houses, flowers, trees and friendly people. It feels a little bit like paradies. In the house you can find all that you need almost more than you need Carlos is an uncomplicated and super friendly host.

When we had questions he answered them immediately. We would have loved it to stay longer and we hope we can come back as fast as possible!

It is usually difficult to summarize a long stay in a short review, but there it goes Awesome location, awesome house, awesome host! But more importantly, Carlos went out of his way to make this stay remarkable.

He always responds quickly, is a very approachable and great guy and fixes every occasional! I think he really embodies the Airbnb spirit!

This place is a must if you are looking for something laidback. Close to many beaches. There are direct access to hiking paths and a cool garden.

But the best is the friendly atmosphere. You will for sure enjoy mingling with nice hosts and guests. Das Hostel ist gepflegt und mir allem ausgestattet was man braucht.

Great place, warm welcoming, everything is easy and cheap. Nice beach in 5 minutes driving. Place quiet and beautiful.

Ronja and Martijn make it really easy to arrive in the Holidayfeeling and made us feel at home straight away! Not only was the home made dinner super delicious but it was also a great opportunity to socialise with the other guests.

They helped us booking our trip and we could rent some surf gear for a low price to use on the local awesome beaches. We also enjoyed their freshly prepared breakfast.

All in all we had a great time at this easy and relaxed place. Thank you for everything and see you next time!

Martin tog godt i mod os, stedet havde de faciliteter vi sku bruge incl. Although Ronja hosts quite a few people it was really quiet, tidy and we immediately felt home in the Hostel on the Hill.

The communication could not have been better. Two easy-going hosts making almost everything possible we went mainly for surfing, but you can also do good hikes, SUP tours, mountain biking or simply beach vacation close by.

Martijn shared his knowledge and passion about surfing and hidden spots along the cost with us which was a great pleasure!

Breakfast options are good, too. This hostel offers everything you could wish for: It is clean, there are enough bathrooms, the kitchen is well eqipped and the living room is cosy!

The hospitality of Ronja and Martijn is awesome. They were always interested in our well-beeing and helped a lot by sharing their local knowledge!

We are definetly coming back to this awesome hostel! They are very welcoming and friendly, and the house is cosy and charming, you feel like home.

Thank you so much Ronja and Maarten. It was really great to stay in your Hostel on the Hill. Great place, wonderful atmosphere Quiet and relaxing place, small and cozy, with all the indispensable things.

The owners are very kind and available for everything. Es gibt viele Tipps, was man in der Gegend so machen kann, z. Auf jeden Fall zu empfehlen!

What a beautiful place! We had everything we needed, everything was clean and just perfect. The host was very helpful with everything we needed and we loved our stay there.

A beautiful peaceful spot. Had a lovely stay. We stayed 3 days and had a blast. Ronja and Martin are very welcoming and full of great advice.

The hostel is a place where you will feel at home and meet great people. Its charming, cozy, clean We can just advise you to go there!

Beautiful house, lovely hosts, stunning location and a warm, welcoming atmosphere. Only thing I could fault is the weather ; Thanks for a relaxing stay!

We had a very pleasant stay at this Hostel. It is a bit further away from Everything but therefore a Perfect place to Refill your batteries.

Nice and cosy vibe, it felt more like being at someones home than a hostel. My two friends and I stayed at this hostel for two nights, and really enjoyed it!

They know the area well and are more than willing to help you decide what to visit, they also have some booklets and folders with things to do.

The location was good for us, as we had a car. Ronja and Martin know what they are doing! Plus, the surroundings are just amazing, all the chill and all the lush and all the mediterranean warmth you need My stay with Ronja and Martin was amazing!

If you have the chance to stay here, DO IT! Certaines ont des restaurants. Il y a une cuisine et un salon de lecture.

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